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HISTORY OF THE 29TH (WORCESTERSHIRE)
by H. Everard
On the 1st of July a Warrant regulating the colours and clothing of regiments of foot was issued, by which it appears that the facings of the 29th Regiment were bright yellow. The colours were now called the "King's " and the Regimental." The motto over the White Horse, on the little flap of the Grenadier cap, was ordered to be
"Nec aspera terrent," and the number of the regiment was directed to be worn in the middle part behind.
The uniform of the officers was to be made up in the same manner as that of the men, laced, lapelled, and turned up with the colour of the facing, and with a narrow silver embroidery to the binding and button-holes, the buttons being set on in the same manner as on the men's coats; the waistcoat and breeches to be the same colour as those of the men. Sash to be worn over the left shoulder.
The picture of the 29th grenadier of this date is taken from one in the Windsor collection. On a close inspection of the original, the regimental lace appears to be white, with two blue, and two yellow stripes, and has a blue worm on a white ground, down the centre.
On the 4th March, 1752, Capt. and Lieut.-Col. Honble. George 1752 Boscawen, 1st Foot Guards, was appointed to command the regiment, G. Boscawen vice Hopson transferred to the 40th Foot. The regiment was now
stationed at Cork, and on the 2nd May reviewed by the Earl of Rothes, after which it took up quarters as follows:- 2 companies Kinsale, 2 Charles Fort, 4 Bandon, 4 Clonakilty.
1753 - 29th Foot
In 1753 it was stationed at Cork, and on the 3rd of November orders were issued for recruiting the "29th Regiment of Foot," commanded by Col. George Boscawen. This appears to be the first occasion on which the regiment's number was officially made use of in correspondence. The following year the regiment was quartered at Arklow, Wicklow, and Celbridge. It was reviewed at Kinsale by Major-Genl. O'ffarel, after which 4 companies returned to Wicklow, 1 marched to Roscrea, 3 to Castlecomer, and 2 to Nenagh.
In 1755 it was stationed at Waterford, whence in July it proceeded to join a Camp formed at Thurles, where after remaining six weeks, 8 companies returned to Waterford and 2 marched to Duncannon Fort.
As the quarrels which had long prevailed between French and English settlers, both in the East Indies and North America, now threatened to lead to open hostilities, the establishment of regiments at home, was raised, and each company of the 29th Regiment was augmented by 1 serjeant, 1 corporal, 1 drummer, and 17 privates.
On the 27th of April. orders were received for the raising of two additional companies, which with their officers, viz., Captains John Corrance§ and William Piers, Lieutenants John Bolton and John Warren, Ensigns Robert Graham and Charles Burton, were shortly after turned over to the 2nd Battalion 31st Foot, orders for raising which were dated the 25th of August. Capt. Francis Laye was also transferred to this new battalion, which two years later on was constituted the 70th Foot.
On the 5th of May war was declared against France, one of the chief subjects of complaint being its encroachments on the Ohio, and in Nova Scotia. This was the commencement of the Seven Years' War. In America, George Washington was serving with the British on General Braddock's staff.
During the summer, the regiment joined a camp formed at Warrenstown, but on the 19th of October marched for Waterford.
The next year it occupied the following quarters, viz., Wicklow, Arklow, Wexford, and Galway.
During the summer of 1758, the regiment encamped with the 10th Foot at Kilkenny, after which it marched to Dublin. In August a draft of 150 men from the eight battalion companies was ordered to be prepared to strengthen the several regiments of foot serving in North America.
In 1759, the 29th marched to Kilkenny and joined the camp formed at Bennett's Bridge, after which it took up quarters at Clonmel, Cashel, and Athy. It was while stationed here that the regiment first got its black drummers, which occurred in the following manner. Admiral Boscawen being at the surrender of Guadaloupe, and thinking that blacks would prove very ornamental as drummers, procured eight or ten boys, whom he brought home and gave to his brother, who then commanded the 29th Regiment. Col. Enys, in his MS. Records, states: " His Majesty's permission was obtained to retain them in that capacity, and when I joined the regiment in 1775, there were three, if not more, of the original blacks in the corps, who were remarkable good drummers." The custom of having black drummers in the regiment was continued for the better part of 84 years (the last one died on the 15th July, 1843).
Under a Warrant from the Grand Lodge of Ireland dated the 3rd of May, 1759, a Masonic Lodge was established in the regiment.
In 1760 the 29th was stationed at Limerick.
On the 16th of January, 1761, George, Lord Forbes (afterwards the Earl of Granard), was appointed to command the regiment, vice Major-General Boscawen, transferred to the 23rd R.W.F. New colours were this year presented to the 29th.
1762 - 1763
In 1762 the regiment left Galway for Londonderry and Belfast, and the following year was quartered at Dublin. Whilst here the loth company was reduced, and in November orders were issued that each company should be reduced to 2 serjeants, 2 corporals, 1 drummer, and 27 privates.
This reduction was in consequence of the termination of the Seven Years' War, peace having been signed at Paris on the 10th of February.
The following year, however, the companies were again made up to the numbers allowed on the Irish establishment.
Leaving Dublin in May, 1765, the regiment marched to Cork, where on the 5th of June it embarked on board H.M.S. "Thunderer," (74 guns, Captain Hood,) for conveyance to Halifax, where the headquarters were established, detachments being sent to Annapolis and Fort Cumberland. The regiment was placed on the British establishment from 17th July, the day after its landing in Nova Scotia, and consisted of 9 companies, each of 2 serjeants, 2 corporals, 1 drummer, and 47 privates.
The year 1765 was rendered important in the annals of England by the passing of an American Stamp Act, and by the attempt to tax that colony without its consent. Dr. Franklyn, the most eminent by far of the Americans then in England, on giving evidence at the Bar, stated "that the Colonists by Charter were entitled to all the privileges and liberties of Englishmen, and that by the Great Charters and the Petition and Declaration of Rights, one of the privileges of English subjects is that they are not to be taxed but by their common consent." Petitions were also presented to Parliament from the traders of all the large towns in England, and the Act was repealed, the news of which was received in America with universal joy.
From the loth of January 1767, officers' appointments and promotions commenced to be regularly published in the "Gazette."
This year, Charles Townshend, Chancellor of the Exchequer, 1767 proposed new taxes for America, namely, " Import Duties," which led to the principal gentlemen of Boston pledging themselves to encourage the consumption of their own manufactures, and not to buy anything from Great Britain beyond a few articles of indispensable necessity.
In the Army List of this year are mentioned for the first time the various regimental laces, that of the 29th being white, with 2 blue, and yellow stripe.
Not only did each regiment have its own distinct pattern of lace, but the loops, i.e., lace sewn round the buttonholes, were of different forms, some being square-headed, others pointed, and others frog loops. Some regiments had these loops set at equal distances, others by twos, (amongst the latter was the 29th Foot), so that at any period between 1768, and 1836, when regimental lace and the regimental mode of wearing it was abolished, a person conversant with the various patterns of lace, and the different facings, could tell to what regiment a man belonged without closely inspecting his buttons.
On the 21st of September His Majesty was pleased to direct "that the number of each regiment should be marked on the buttons, at the next clothing, as likewise on the uniforms of the officers, when they shall make new ones."
In the Nova Scotia Gazette we find a paragraph dated Halifax, 1768 11th February, :-
"A few days since John Dutton, a soldier of the 29th Regiment, when attempting to cross the Basin, near Fort Sackville, the ice broke in with him, and he was instantly drowned, nothwithstanding all possible means used to save him." On the 13th of June his body was found floating near the Basin, with a knapsack on his back containing 2 books and some other trifles. His corpse was brought to town and decently buried.
The men's waistcoats were this year changed from red to white; and on the 27th July black bearskin caps were ordered to be worn by the grenadier company and drummers, in lieu of the yellow cloth ones.
Towards the end of June, a sloop named the "Liberty," belonging to a Boston merchant, anchored in that harbour laden with wine from Madeira, whereupon the Commissioners determined to enforce the new law, but met with resistance ; their houses, and those of the other officers of Customs were attacked, their windows broken, and the collector's boat dragged through the town and burnt on the common. On account of apprehended disturbances, orders were sent to General Gage, the commander-in-chief for North America, to dispatch troops from Halifax to Boston These reinforcements, which consisted of the 14th and 29th regiments, the grenadier and one company of 59th, and a company of Artillery, disembarked at the Long Wharf, Boston, the 5th of October, and having formed, marched, with drums beating, fifes playing, and colours flying, by King Street to the common, where the 29th, having brought their field equipage with them, encamped with the Artillery, the 14th being lodged for the night in Faneuil Hall. On the 15th, His Excellency Genl. Gage, having arrived from New York, was received by the troops under arms on the common, and reviewed the 14th and 29th regiments. On the 29th of October the regiment broke up its encampment and took up quarters in a large store by Green's Lane, belonging to Major Green, distiller, and in a house in New Boston, belonging to Mr. Forrest.
By Royal Warrant, the 19th December, 1768, we find that the Officers' Coats were to be lapelled to the waist with yellow, and "that these might be without embroidery or lace;" to have cross pockets, and sleeves with round cuffs and no slits. The lapels and cuffs to be the same breadth as the men's.
Officers of the grenadier company to wear an epaulette on each shoulder. Those of the battalion, to wear one on the right shoulder. They were to be either of embroidery or lace; those of the 29th Regiment with silver fringe. Waistcoats to be plain, without embroidery or lace.
Officers' Swords to be uniform, and sword-knots to be of crimson and gold in stripes. The hilt of the swords of the 29th to be silver, "according to the colour of the buttons of the uniform."
Hats to be laced with silver, and to be uniformly cocked.
Sashes to be of crimson silk, and worn round the waist.
The King's Arms to be engraved on the gorgets; also the number of the regiment. The Gorgets to be silver, like the buttons on the uniforms.
Officers of the grenadier company to wear black bearskin caps, and to have fuzils, shoulder belts, and pouches. The shoulder belts of the 29th to be white (the colour of the waistcoats).
The Battalion Officers to have espontoons. The whole, to have black linen gaiters, with black buttons and small stiff tops, black garters, and uniform buckles.
Serjeants' Coats to be lapelled to the waist with yellow. The buttonholes to be of white braid; those on the waistcoat to be plain.
Serjeants of grenadier company to have swords, fuzils, pouches, and caps; those of the battalion to have swords and halberts only.
Sashes to be of crimson worsted, with a stripe of yellow, and worn round the waist.
Caporals' Coats to have a silk epaulette on the right shoulder.
Grenadiers' Coats to have the usual round wings of red cloth on the point of the shoulder, with six loops of the regimental lace, and a border round the bottom.
Private Men's Coats to be looped with worsted lace, but no border. The ground of the lace to be white, with 2 blue, and 1 yellow stripe ; to have white buttons. Four loops to be on the sleeves and four on the pockets, with 2 on each side of the slit behind. The breadth of all the lapels to be 3 inches, to reach down to the waist, and not to be wider at the top than at the bottom. The sleeves of the coats to have a small round cuff without any slit, and to be made so that they may be unbuttoned and let down. The whole to have cross pockets, but no flaps to those of the waistcoat. The cuff of the sleeve which turns up, to be three inches and a half deep. The flap on the pocket of the coat to be sewed down, and the pocket to be cut in the lining of the coat.
Regiments like the 29th, which had white waistcoats, were ordered to have white accoutrements.
Drummers' and Fifers' Coats to be yellow, faced and lapelled with red. Waistcoats, breeches, and linings to be white. To be laced as the colonel thinks fit; the lace being of the regimental pattern.
On the front of the Drummers' and Fifers' Bearskin Caps, the King's crest in silver-plated metal, on a black ground, with trophies of colours and drums ; the number of the regiment on the back part.
The Grenadiers also wore the King's crest on their bearskin hats, but with the motto, "Nec aspera terrent," and a grenade on the back part, with the number of the regiment on it.
Hats of the Serjeants to be laced with silver; those of the corporals and private men with white tape. All hats to have black cockades.
Each Pioneer to have an axe, a saw, and an apron; a cap with a leather crown, and black bearskin front, on which is to be the King's crest in white, on a red ground; also an axe and a saw. The number of the regiment to be on the back part of the hat.
Hat Lace for the Officers, silver; waistcoat, breeches, and lining of coats, white.
On the 6th of March, 1769, a Warrant was given to the Ordnance Department to issue 2 fuzils and 2 cartridge boxes for the serjeants of the 29th Grenadiers.
Early this year the regiment took up quarters at Fort William∆ on Castle Island, at the entrance of the harbour.
On the 3rd of November, Major Evelyn, 1st Foot Guards, was 1769 appointed Colonel of the 29th Foot, vice the Earl of Granard, deceased.
In December each company was ordered to be augmented to 3 serjeants, 3 corporals, 2 drummers, and 42 privates, with 2 fifers to the Grenadier company.
The following Spring, the 29th returned to Boston, where strong symptoms of discontent began to appear among the inhabitants. Unhappily, on political grounds, the troops were most obnoxious to many of the upper class, and to all the lower, and a man in a red coat could scarcely go through the streets without being insulted.
On the morning of the 2nd of March, as one of the 29th was passing the premises of John Gray, a ropemaker, he was assailed with abusive words, and afterwards beaten severely. He soon returned however, accompanied by some of his comrades; an affray ensued, in which the ropemakers got the worst of it. This affair having got to the ears of the commanding officer, orders were given the troops against quarrelling with the inhabitants. Further complaints were however made by the soldiers of their being knocked down, and otherwise ill-treated.
In the meanwhile the ropemakers and calkers,† whose occupations brought them into contact, formed a society, at the meetings of which inflammatory addresses were delivered and the most violent resolutions passed against the British Government, its agents, and instruments in America.
It was not before the 5th, that disturbances assumed a serious aspect. In the course of that day, the mob destroyed a quantity of tea (the tax on which formed their principal cause of complaint). Alarm bells were rung as in cases of fire, and on the inhabitants assembling, a considerable body collected at the gates of a barrack where two companies of the 29th were quartered. These they abused, and invited to come out to fight. Between 7 and 8 p.m. a violent tumult broke out. The multitude, armed some with clubs, others with swords, ran towards King Street,* crying, "Let us drive out these ribalds; they have no business here." They then rushed furiously towards the Custom House, and attacked the sentry on duty, with the cry of "Down with the Bloody-backs! Kill him! Kill him!" assaulting him with snow-balls, pieces of ice, and every other missile they could find ; with oaths and insulting epithets, they dared him to fire, and attempted to drag him into the street. He shouted to the main guard for assistance, which was immediately rendered.
The regiment happened to be on duty that day, and the main guard being commanded by Lieut. Bassett, who had not been long in the regiment, Captain Thos. Preston, the captain of the day, was induced to visit it, fearing lest so young an officer might not act with all the prudence necessary on so trying an occasion. On the way he found the tumult increasing, and as the mob seemed to be directed against the Custom House, in which was lodged a considerable sum of Government money, he made all haste to reach the guard, which was situated almost opposite to it. Finding it already under arms, Captain Preston detached a corporal and 6 men to protect the sentry and the chest of customs from the popular fury. Having posted the guard as seemed to him most advantageous, he followed the corporal's detachment.
As these approached they found the mob greatly increased, and were pelted by it worse than the sentinel had been. One of the chief leaders was a mulatto of herculean size and strength, named Crispin Attucks, who was surrounded by a party of sailors shouting, "Let us strike at the root! Let us fall upon the nest! The main guard! The main guard!" Captain Preston's party was challenged to fire, and was taunted with the assertion that they dared not fire without the magistrate's order. Meanwhile the soldiers loaded their firelocks and fixed bayonets, but the increasing mob, not at all intimidated, pressed closely upon them, and advanced up to the points of the bayonets. The soldiers stirred not a step from where they were posted, and merely used their weapons to keep off the mob. Emboldened by their apparent fear, Attucks and the sailors, giving three loud cheers, pressed closer upon the troops, and with clubs beat their bayonets and muskets, crying out to the rest, Come on, don't be afraid of 'em; they dare not fire. Knock 'em over! Kill 'em!" Presently Attucks aimed a blow at Captain Preston, who was using every endeavour to appease the fury of the populace. The blow fell on the captain's arm, and knocked down the musket of one of the men, the bayonet of which was seized by the mulatto. At this time there was a confused cry, proceeding from some persons behind Captain Preston, "Why don't you fire! Why don't you fire!" Montgomery, the private whose bayonet was seized by Attucks, and who in the struggle was thrown down, soon rose to his feet in possession of his gun, and immediately fired. Attucks fell dead. This was followed by straggling shots from five or six others. Three persons were killed, five dangerously wounded, and a few more slightly. The populace instantly retreated, leaving the killed on the ground, but soon returned to carry off the bodies.
"On the people assembling again," said Captain Preston, in his written defence, "to take away the dead bodies, the soldiers, supposing them coming to attack them, were making ready to fire again, which I prevented by striking up their firelocks with my hand. Immediately afterwards a townsman came and told me that 4000 or 5000 people were assembled in the next street, and had sworn to take my life and every man's with me; on which I judged it unsafe to remain there longer, and therefore sent the party and sentry to the main guard where the street was narrow and short; then, telling them off into street firings, divided and planted them at each end of the street to secure the rear, expecting an attack, as there was a constant cry of the inhabitants "To arms! To arms! Turn out with your guns!" and the town drums beating to arms. I ordered my drums to beat to arms, and being soon after joined by several companies of the 29th Regiment, I formed them as a guard, into street firings. The 14th Regiment was also got under arms, but remained in their barracks.
"I immediately sent a serjeant with a party to Colonel Dalrymple (14th Regt.), the commanding officer, to acquaint him with every particular. Several officers, going to join the regiment, were knocked down by the mob, one very much wounded had his sword taken from him.
"The Lieut.-Governor Hutchinson, and Colonel Dalrymple, soon after met at the head of the 29th, and agreed that the regiment should retire to its barracks, and the people to their houses, but I kept the picquet to strengthen the guard. This tragic scene occurred at midnight, the ground was covered with snow, the air clear and frosty, and the moon, then in its first quarter, gave but a faint illumination, by which the features of the people were barely visible to each other."
Captain Preston and Lieut. Bassett were committed to prison about 3 o'clock next morning, and in the course of the forenoon, the eight soldiers were also arrested. When the latter were asked why they fired without orders, they replied they heard the word "Fire" from some one, and thought it came from their officer. On Captain Preston and Lieut. Bassett being examined before the magistrates, some of the witnesses swore that Captain Preston had given the word to fire, whilst others swore as positively that Mr. Bassett had done so. However, it being proved that the latter had never moved from that part of the guard which remained stationary in front of the guard house, he was discharged, whilst Captain Preston and the eight soldiers were committed for trial.
"This may be called," wrote Col. Enys, "the commencement of the American War, which in the end produced the Revolution. Certain it is, the Americans themselves looked upon this as the beginning of the contest, as they gave the 29th Regiment the name of The Vein Openers, from their having drawn the first blood that was spilt in that war, and by which name they were known for many years in the neighbourhood of Boston."
For many successive years the anniversary of "The
Massacre,"** as 1770 it was called, was observed with much solemnity by the Bostonians, their ablest spokesmen being employed to deliver harangues by which the public resentment might be stirred and irritating reminiscences kept alive.
Unhappy Boston, let thy sons deplore
Thy hallowed walks besmeared with guiltless gore,
The faithless P * * * * * n∞ and his savage bands
With murderous rancour stretch their bloody hands! The fierce barbarians, grinning o'er their prey,
Approve the carnage, and enjoy the day.
If scalding drops, from rage, from anguish rung,
If speechless sorrows labouring for a tongue,
Or if a weeping world can aught appease
The plaintive ghosts of victims such as these,
The patriots copious tears for each are shed,
A glorious tribute which embalms the dead.
But know, fate summons to that awful goal
Where justice strips the murderer of his soul,
Should venal C * * * s,‡ the scandal of the land,
Snatch the relentless villain from her hand,
Keen execrations on this plate inscribed
Shall reach a Judge that never can be bribed.
On the following Monday, the, 12th of March, the troops were all removed to Fort William. Having remained there about a month, the 29th was ordered to the Province of New Jersey, and it appears that it marched across the country to Newport, and Providence in Rhode Island, whence it embarked, and soon after was mustered as follows:
CAPTAIN PRESTON TO SECRETARY AT WAR.
"Boston Gaol, June 25th, 1770.
As I expect that Colonel Evelyn is on his way here, I know of none so conspicuously the friend of Military people in distress as your Lordship, to whom I could apply. I have therefore taken the liberty of enclosing copys of Affidavits concerning the 5th March last, should they be wanted. I sent some home before, but they are included in these, and are attested by the Justices before whom the originals were sworn, and whose hand Sr Fr. Barnard well knows.
The madness of the people is so great that evidences are affraid to appear for us, nay, they have declared publickly that if a jury should acquit us, or we should receive his Majesty's pardon, not a man of us shall go alive out of town. Even their pulpits are echoing persecution against us, and that blood crys to heaven for Vengeance. My tryal has been put off from the setting of one Court to that of another, till finally it is defered to the beginning of September, so that I shall remain at least six months close confined in a loathsome goal, almost suffocated with charcoal, and in case of the Goals taking fire, as it did last year, must certainly be burned to Death.
My health is much impaird by my long confinement, my debts encreasig by my great expenses, my promotion to the Majority stopt, if not lost, my life in danger from the Mobs threatening to take me out of Goal and hang me. And lastly, the great probability of the Jury finding me guilty, in spite of all law and evidence. This, My Lord, is a melancholy situation which nothing could support me under, but a good conscience, and the hopes of his Majesty's pardon. I hope Your Lordship will excuse this trouble, and also believe me to be, with great respect,
Most obedient and
very humble Servt.
THOS. PRESTON, Capt
in the 29th Regiment.
To the Right Honble. Lord Barrington, Secretary at Warr."
"No pains," says Botta, "were spared to agitate and inflame the minds of the people from whom the jury, in the trial of Captain Preston, had to he chosen. When, however, the trial commenced on the 24th of October, it was conducted with perfect fairness. At first Captain Preston had great difficulty in obtaining counsel, many, either from popular principles or in personal terror, refused their aid, but Mr. John Adams (afterwards second President of the United States), a young lawyer then first rising into fame, who was warm and zealous on the popular side—the one on which all his hopes depended—undertook it, saying that "in a free country, counsel ought to be the very last thing an accused man should want."
At the summing-up of the trial on the 30th of October, Judge Lyndex towards the close of his speech, said: "Happy I am to find that after such a strict examination, the conduct of the prisoner appears in so fair a light; yet I feel myself at the same time deeply affected that this affair turns out so much to the disgrace of every person concerned against him, and so much to the shame of the Town in general." The jury returned a verdict of "Not Guilty," and Captain Preston was immediately discharged.
The trial of the eight soldiers did not take place so soon, but on the 5th of December the jury acquitted six, and found two guilty of manslaughter only, viz., Montgomery, who had killed Attucks, and Killroy, who was proved to have shot another man.
On the 25th of December a company of Light Infantry¥ consisting of 1 captain, 2 lieutenants, 3 serjeants, 3 corporals, 2 drummers, and 62 private men, was ordered to be added to the regiment, and each of the old companies of the battalion to be augmented by 20 private men. The required men were to be raised in North America, and the additional officers, brought in from reduced companies, were:
Captain John Crozier, ... from half-pay, late 108th Foot.
Lieutenant Thos. Robinson, from half-pay, of the 49th Foot.
Ensign John Willoughby, from half-pay, of the Regiment.
Simes mentions that the "appointments" of the Light Infantry company were:—
(2) Black leather caps, with 3 chains round them, and a piece of plate upon the centre of the crown; in the front G. R., a crown, and the number of the regiment.
(3) Small cartouch boxes, powder horns, and bags for ball.
(4) Short pieces and hatchets.
On the 5th of March, 1771, a Royal Warrant was issued, for delivering the following arms, &c., to the regiment in consequence of the addition of a Light company, viz.: 2 serjeant's fuzils, with bayonets and scabbards; 39 firelocks; 41 cartouch boxes, with straps; 39 bayonets and scabbards.
It was proposed by a Board of General Officers that had assembled to decide on the clothing of the Light Infantry that a "Maude" would be a proper covering for these troops in the time of war, in place of a blanket, and that the waist belt should be furnished with 2 frogs, one for the bayonet the other for the hatchet occasionally, which at other times should be tied upon the knapsack.
The differences with the Court of Spain having been adjusted, recruiting in North America was stopped, and the establishment of the regiment was fixed at 20 serjeants, 10 drummers, 2 fifers, 380 rank and file. In November it embarked for St. Augustine, Florida, whence detachments were sent to Mobile, Pensacola, and one company to the Bahamas.
By Royal Warrant, the 25th of May, 1772, all captain-lieutenants were authorised to rank as captains, and were henceforward called captain-lieutenant and captain.
On the 29th of July a Warrant was published regulating the prices of commissions in marching Regiments of Foot:-
1. Captain, £1500.
2. Captain-Lieutenant (having rank of Captain), £950.
3. Lieutenant, £550.
4. Ensign, £400.
In November Captain Thomas Preston was granted a pension of £200 a year upon the military establishment of Ireland, in consideration of his faithful services.
In September, 1773, the regiment embarked for England, but meeting with contrary winds, was for some time detained in Charleston Harbour, and in consequence did not arrive at Dover till the end of November, when it took up quarters in the Castle, and was shortly after reviewed by Lieut.-General Irwine. The following month a detachment was sent to Archcliff Fort.
A hat of a new pattern was, in November, authorised for the Infantry.
From the Inspection Reports, dated the 17th of December, we gather the following interesting information:-
Among the Remarks on the Regiment, we find that the "Officers all properly armed ; salute well ; uniforms according to regulation; expert at their duty."
Accoutrements, according to regulation.
Clothing, good; made according to regulation, and well fitted.
Hats are ill-cocked and not of the size or pattern ordered by the King.
The following spring new firelocks and bayonets were issued to the regiment, which was inspected at Dover on the 25th of April by Major-General Sir W. Howe, who in his report made the following remarks:-
Drummers and Fifers.—Beat and play well. Ten drummers are negroes.
Men.—A serviceable corps for present duty. Many old men in the regiment.
Manual Exercise.—Well performed, and in good time.
Firing-s.—Loads quickly, presents low and well. The ramrod is drawn with the backhand, which is supposed to contribute to the quickness of loading. The platoons, shouldered by signal from their respective flank men.
Gayters.—Good ; those of the battalion according to regulation. Those of the Grenadiers have white metal buttons.
General Observations.—Steady, attentive, and silent under arms. In some of the firings, when formed three deep, the front rank stood up ; in others, as well as for the oblique firing, the front rank kneeled. An able-bodied Light Infantry, and well trained, was drawn up three deep on the right of the Grenadiers, and was posted upon the left of the battalion for the manual exercises and firings. The Grena¬diers remained on the right in one platoon.
The officers have a sutler, eat together, and live in friendship.
In sly, the Light company under command of Captain, Chas. Viscount Petersham, was ordered to march to Salisbury, where, on arrival, it joined a brigade, formed of the Light companies of the Buffs, the 11th, 21st, 32nd, 36th, and 70th regiments, to practice a set of manoeuvres invented by General Sir W. Howe, who was appointed to instruct them. This officer had under him, as second in command, Major Jeremiah French, 29th Regiment.
On the 4th of October this brigade was reviewed by H.M. King 1774 George III., in Richmond Park, after which Lord Petersham was quartered with his company at Dartford, whilst the regiment, being relieved by the 36th Foot, marched to Chatham, there to be stationed.
Towards the end of February, the several companies were augmented by 1 serjeant, 1 corporal, 1 drummer, and 18 privates each.
Disturbances in America assuming now a warlike aspect, several regiments were ordered to prepare for active service. Orders were issued to enlist men for the term of three years, or during the war, and as no one thought it could last so long, a great many men were procured.
Major General Evelyn and the officers used their utmost endeavours to get the regiment completed to its new establishment, and being the first corps reported as such, His Majesty was pleased to express his approbation in a very generous manner, saying "he would employ the 29th Regiment directly, in a situation where he trusted it might distinguish itself."
§ Re-transferred to the 29th Foot.
∆ In 1799 its name was changed to Fort Independence.
† The Tories, in derision, called these assemblies "Calker's Meetings," and the term was at length corrupted to "Caucus."— Webster's Dictionary.
* Now State Street.
** I am indebted to Mr. Chas. Pfaff, of Boston, U.S.A., for a copy of this Picture.
¥ Extract from Orders dated Head Quarters, New York, 3rd March, 1771:—The Light Company to be raised in Great Britain; the 20 additional private men, for regiments stationed in the Province of Quebec, New York, Jersey, Illinois, &c., to be recruited on the West side of the Connecticut River, and in the Province of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Maryland to the East side of the Potomack.—Haldimand MS.
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